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Analyzing Text to Enable Comprehension

The Syllabus is similar to the syllabus for a course. It is your primary reference for information regarding the module. The online capability of the module allows you to access information directly from Levels II and III of the module, but selected elements of those levels also appear in the syllabus to give you a single source for key information. You may find it helpful to have a hard copy of the syllabus available for reference.




Module Overview:

There are nine major goals for this module. Upon completion of this module you should be able to do the following:

  1. Explain the relationship of text structure to reading comprehension.


  2. Describe how text structure awareness is used to teach reading comprehension.


  3. Be able to give the different elements of text structure that should be taught to students.


  4. Explain the differences between narrative and expository texts.


  5. Describe the features of expository texts, and give examples of specific problems students with reading disabilities have with them.


  6. Describe the features of narrative texts, and give examples of specific problems students with reading disabilities have with them.


  7. Be able to explain the role that text grammar plays in expository text analysis.


  8. Describe how story grammar is strategically used to comprehend stories.


  9. Provide examples of how expository text structures are used in the understanding of different genres.

Content Map: The content map below provides an overview of the subject matter that will be covered within the Academy's Reading Modules.
space Module number zero space
spaceModule spaceOverview of Learning Disabilities and Reading Disabilities
  1. Understanding the Challenge of Reading and Learning Disabilities
  2. Critical Dimensions of Instruction for Teaching Reading to Individuals with Learning Disabilities
  1. Assessing Students' Reading Progress to Inform Instructional Decisions
space Module number one space
spaceModule spaceBeginning Word Reading
  1. The Development of Literacy: As Reading Instruction Begins
  2. Learning about Phonemes
  1. Teaching Phonological Awareness
  2. Beginning Word Reading and Spelling
space Module number two space
spaceModule spaceAdvanced Word Reading and Developing Reading Fluency
  1. Teaching Word Patterns
  2. Conquering Multi-syllabic Words
  1. Developing Reading Fluency
  2. Developing School-wide Reading Fluency Programs
space Module number three space
spaceModule spaceBasic Principles in Reading Comprehension
  1. Good Comprehension Instruction
  2. Language Connections
  1. Strategic Instruction
space Module number four space
spaceModule spaceBuilding Background Knowledge for Reading Comprehension
  1. Constructing World Knowledge Schemata
  2. Vocabulary Development
  1. Concept Development
space Module number five space
spaceModule spaceAnalyzing Text to Enable Comprehension
  1. Understanding Text Structures
  2. Narrative Structure
  1. Expository Structure

space Module number six space
spaceModule spaceGoal Specific Comprehension Strategies
  1. Preview Strategies
  2. Questioning and Visual Imagery Strategies
  1. Paraphrasing and Summarization Strategies
space Module number seven space
spaceModule spacePutting It All Together
  1. Focus on the Reader
  2. Multi-component Strategies
  1. Class- and School-wide Programs for Reading Comprehension


Outline:

The Content Outlines are specific to lessons in this module. They allow you to preview the content to be covered in each lesson and to note how the content for the several lessons combines at the module level to meet the goals for the module. You will also find that the Content Outlines will serve as a useful review feature. Later when you have completed the module and wish to review what was covered in the individual lessons you can return to the Content Outlines.

Analyzing Text to Enable Comprehension

  1. Understanding Text Structures
    1. Preview
      1. Identification without linguistic information
      2. Prediction of activity without linguistic information
      3. Identification and predictions of different texts
      4. Lesson: To explore the use of text structures in the process of reading comprehension and give you suggestions on how to help students use text structures effectively
      5. Handouts

    2. Understanding Text Structures
      1. Text passage
      2. Impact of text structures on reading comprehension

    3. Purpose and Goals
      1. To acquaint you with important elements of text structure that teachers need to make explicit for students with reading disabilities
      2. To give you specific ideas about how to help students use text structures to enhance their reading comprehension
      3. To explain the relationship of text structures to reading comprehension
      4. To describe text characteristics, including genre, content, and organizational patterns, along with specific recommendations for teaching these features to students with reading disabilities
      5. To suggest ways to teach students to use text structure awareness strategically for reading comprehension

    4. Lesson Questions
      1. What are the elements of text structure that we should teach students?
      2. What are the differences between narrative and expository texts?
      3. How should teachers address text structures to enhance the reading comprehension of struggling students?

    5. Text Structure and Reading Comprehension
      1. Organizational patterns and clarity of presentation
      2. Student awareness of text structure
      3. Strategic use of text structure

    6. Using Text Characteristics in Teaching
      1. Genre
      2. Content
      3. Organizational patterns

    7. Review of Teaching Suggestions
      1. Expose students to a variety of genres
      2. Use the instructional approach recommended by Donna Merritt and Barbara Culatta
      3. Have students write in the genre they are working to understand
      4. Make students aware of the differences among narrative and expository text structures
      5. Begin teaching text structure analysis with the easier narrative genres, then transition to expository genres

    8. Strategic Use of Text Analysis
      1. Teach text structures themselves, as well as how to identify them before trying to teach students to use this knowledge strategically
      2. Use a general pattern of explicit instruction supported by research
      3. Use judicious review through short, frequent, varying tasks and incorporate previously taught information
      4. Prompt the use of text analysis strategically

    9. Review and Preview
      1. Review
      2. Preview


  2. Narrative Structure
    1. Preview
      1. Reading narrative text
      2. Lesson handouts

    2. Narrative Structure
      1. Stories are more predictable than expository text
      2. Previous lesson

    3. Purpose and Goals
      1. To zero in on narrative structure and explain how to help students with reading disabilities use story grammar strategically to comprehend stories
      2. To give a description of narratives with special emphasis on what specific characteristics require of readers
      3. To report what research says about students' understanding of narrative structure
      4. To explain story grammar as a tool for narrative text analysis
      5. To give specific information on strategic instruction in this context

    4. Lesson Questions
      1. What features of narrative text, including story grammar, do students need to know?
      2. What specific problems do students with reading disabilities have with narrative texts?
      3. How should you teach students to use story grammar strategically for reading comprehension?

    5. Specific Characteristics of Narrative Texts
      1. Basic characteristics of narrative texts
      2. What narrative characteristics require of readers

    6. Students' Understanding of Narrative Text
      1. Struggling students' problems with narratives
      2. Cultural correlates in processing narratives

    7. Story Grammar as a Tool for Narrative Analysis
      1. Rationale for use
      2. Story grammar frames

    8. Promoting Strategic Use of Story Grammar
      1. Teaching story grammar strategically
      2. Three specific teaching scenarios
      3. Implementation tips synthesized from research

    9. Review and Preview
      1. Review
      2. Preview


  3. Expository Structure
    1. Preview
      1. Structural schema of lessons
      2. Most lessons have expository text
      3. Structural understanding aids comprehension
      4. Lesson: To learn about effective practices in teaching expository text analysis to enable reading comprehension in struggling readers
      5. Handouts & Reading

    2. Expository Structure
      1. Parasitology text
      2. Students with learning disabilities are not always aware of text structures

    3. Purpose and Goals
      1. To zero in on expository text and explain how to help students with reading disabilities use expository text strategically to comprehend genre
      2. To describe expository genre
      3. To report what research says about students' understanding of expository structure
      4. To explain text grammar as a tool for expository text analysis
      5. To give suggestions on how to approach the teaching of strategic use of expository structure

    4. Lesson Questions
      1. What features of expository text, including text grammar, do students need to know?
      2. What specific problems do students with reading disabilities have with expository text?
      3. How should you teach students to use text grammars and associated structures strategically for reading comprehension?

    5. Characteristics of Expository Text
      1. They inform, describe, explain, enumerate, discuss, compare/contrast, persuade, and problem-solve
      2. Have multiple organizational patterns, or text grammars
      3. They are difficult to predict based on content
      4. Well-presented text includes a variety of structural or visual cues to make the organization clear
      5. Different types of relationships are present in different types of text patterns
      6. Various text patterns are signaled by different headings, subheadings, and signal words

    6. Students' Understanding of Expository Texts
      1. Expository text is generally more difficult to comprehend than narrative
      2. Some expository structures are easier than others are
      3. Understanding a variety of expository texts is important for reading textbook
      4. Struggling students' problems with expository texts

    7. Text Grammar as a Tool for Expository Text Analysis
      1. Rationale for use
      2. Expository text grammars
      3. Inconsiderate text

    8. Strategic Use of Expository
      1. What to teach
      2. Teaching macrostructures
      3. Identifying main ideas
      4. Language connections
      5. Use of "The Survey Routine"
      6. Elements of strategic instruction

    9. Review and Preview
      1. Review
      2. Preview




Readings: Schumaker, J., Deshler, D., & McKnight, P. (1989).The survey routine. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.

Time Estimates: The amount of time required to complete this module will vary. Some students will have more background on the content of the module and thus may work more rapidly on the activities and assessments. Others may require more time to complete the required readings. Some students may prefer to review the presentations more than once or to spend more time on activities. We estimate that the time for completing all lessons and features, including the readings, will average about six hours per module. There are no qualitative performance expectations attached to the amount of time you devote to completing this module. The time you spend in completing lessons and modules is not reported. This is merely an estimate to assist you in planning your time.



Navigation: Pages in this module are organized in a logical sequence from the first to the last page. Use the forward and back arrow in the top right of the menubar to move through the logical sequence of pages. You may also click "ToC" in the top right of the menubar to access the Table of Contents. Menus for each level and lesson appear in the center of the menubar. Access any level menu by clicking the level titles in the center of the menubar.


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