|Development & Implem||Lesson 1: Glossary||-|
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Antecedent: A stimulus (i.e. a verbal cue, activity, event or person) that immediately precedes a behavior. This stimulus may or may not serve as discriminative for a specific behavior.
Antecedent Interventions: The modification of events that immediately preceed problem behaviors. Examples include changes in the physical setting, curriculum, or schedule.
Behavior Support Plan: A written plan that is developed based on a functional assessment of problem behavior. Behavioral support plans contain multiple intervention strategies designed to modify the environment and teach new skills.
Competing Behavior Diagram: A brainstorming tool that is used to define the features of an effective environment. These features are used to identify specific intervention strategies that are directly linked to the functional assessment information. The competing behavior diagram is used to design interventions for replacing problem behavior with new skills, and implementing strategies that will make problem behavior unnecessary and ineffective.
Consequence: A stimulus (i.e. a verbal response, the acquisition of a reinforcing item or activity) that contingently follows a behavior. For instance, if a little girl's crying results in attention from her teachers, then teacher attention would be considered a consequence that followed the crying behavior.
Consequence Interventions: Strategies that address the stimuli (i.e. a verbal response, the acquisition of a reinforcing item or an activity) that contingently follow a behavior. Two strategies can be used when problem behavior occurs more frequently than appropriate behavior: increase reinforcement for appropriate behavior, and decrease reinforcement received for engaging in problem behavior.
Contextual Fit: Refers to the extent to which a behavior support plan is compatible with the values and skills of the individuals who will be implementing the interventions, and can be implemented given the resources and supports available.
Crisis Prevention Plan: The crisis prevention plan provides teachers and staff with clear guidelines for interrupting and managing dangerous behavior. The plan should provide a clear description of what a crisis situation looks like, specific intervention procedures, clear guidelines for ending intrusive procedures such as restraint or the use of protective equipment, data collection to be conducted, reporting procedures, training and support strategies for staff.
Disruptive Behavior: Behaviors that do not result in injury or serious property destruction. Examples of minor disruptive behaviors include talking out of turn, not paying attention, or refusing to work on in-class assignments.
Escalating Sequence of Problem Behavior: A number of problem behaviors (i.e. whining, spitting, throwing kicking) that appear on a continuum from lower to higher levels of intensity. Knowledge of the escalating sequence of problem behavior is used to intervene early in a chain of problem behaviors.
Function: The consequences that are related to maintaining the occurrence of a behavior. Documented functions of problem behavior include (a) attention, (b) desire for activities or items, (c) escape from attention or activities, and (d) escape from or obtain physiological stimulation.
Functional Assessment: Also known as Functional Behavioral Assessment. The process of collecting information in order to develop hypothesis statements regarding the variables that maintain and predict problem behavior. Functional assessment strategies include indirect assessment methods, direct observation, and functional analysis.
Hypothesis Statement: An end product or summary of the functional assessment. A hypothesis statement provides information about environmental events that may increase the likelihood of problem behavior, the environmental events that precede problem behavior, and the function of the problem behavior.
PBS: (Positive Behavioral Support) A comprehensive set of strategies that are meant to redesign environments in such a way that problem behaviors are prevented or inconsequential, and to teach students new skills, making problem behaviors unnecessary.
Positive Behavioral Support: (PBS) A comprehensive set of strategies that are meant to redesign environments in such a way that problem behaviors are prevented or inconsequential, and to teach students new skills, making problem behaviors unnecessary.
Positive Lifestyles: Opportunities for students to exercise choice, engage in positive social interactions, experience academic success, and live in a stable and predictable environment.
Positive Reinforcement: Behavior increases when a stimulus is delivered.
Preventative Strategies: Behavioral support plans that are implemented before problem behavior has a chance to occur. Preventative strategies involve redesigning the environment and teaching new skills.
Problem Behavior: Behavior such as aggression, self-injury, property destruction, apathy, disruption, and screaming, which impede the learning of the student or the education of other students.
Reinforcement: The state of receiving or presenting a reinforcer. A stimulus that when presented immediately following a response increases the probability that the response will occur again. Can be the presentation of a reward or removal of something unpleasant.
Reinforcer: A consequent stimulus that increases the probability a behavior will occur, or maintains the future rate of that behavior.
Setting Event: Any occurrence that affects a student's responses to reinforcers and punishers in the environment. Setting events can be due to environmental, social, or physiological factors. Occurrences that affect a behavior at one point in time may change the likelihood of a targeted behavior at a later point.
Setting Event Interventions: Interventions that address setting events involve developing approaches that identify social, environmental, and physiological events that may temporarily alter the value of reinforcers and punishers within the student's environment. Setting event interventions may involve minimizing the likelihood of the setting event, changing expectations on days when setting events occur, or neutralizing the setting event.